The SEMPLES of CASTLE SEMPLE
Dr Brian Smith
(Based on an article from Lochwinnoch Online)
The history of Lochwinnoch is inextricably linked to that of the Castle Semple Estate and the three families who owned it for about 450 years.
The great feudal family of Semple and their rise to power was through the patronage of the House of Stewart. Before discussing the Semples it is worth having a short resume of the Stewart dynasty. This will shed light on how the families became close.
The Stewart Dynasty
King David I (1124-1153) awarded the title “Steward of Scotland” to Walter FitzAlan (1106-1177) around 1150. He was the son of a Breton knight, Alanfitz Flaald, who served as steward to the bishops of Dol in Brittany. FitzAlan served as steward for three successive kings; David I, Malcolm IV and William I. He was granted many tracts of land at Lochwinnoch, Renfrew, Mearns, Strathgryfe, North Kyle, Pollock, Cathcart, Dripps, Eaglesham, Innerwick, West Partick, Inchinnan, Stenton, Hassenden, Legerwood, Birkenside and Paisley. Walter repelled an invasion of Renfrewshire in 1164 by Somerled, the Lord of the Isles. He founded Paisley Abbey about 1165 and the “cappelam at Lochinauche” became a dependant chapel to the Abbey. The stewardship became hereditary and the 3rd High Steward adopted Stewart as the family name.
In 1124 King David gave Annandale to Robert de Brus. The House of Bruce reigned from 1306-1371. Robert I (the Bruce 1306-1329) had a daughter, Marjorie, who married (in 1314) Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and a direct descendant of Walter FitzAlan. The Semples were great supporters of Bruce. When King David II (her brother) died in 1371 with no issue the son (at the age of 55) of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward, and Marjorie Bruce became Robert II, the first Stewart King and the start of the dynasty.
The High Stewards land holdings in Renfrewshire will have ensured a close relationship with the Semples who were prominent in this area. This relationship proved even more beneficial when the High Steward and Crown merged under Robert II. The Semples were sheriffs of Renfrew and from 1309 Robert de Sempill was made the Steward of the Barony of Renfrew held at that time by Walter, 6th High Steward (1309-1327) whose son would become Robert II, the first Steward King.
The area we know as Renfrewshire was originally part of Lanarkshire. After the rise of the Stewarts (1371) to the Scottish throne the Barony of Renfrew was created in 1397 by Robert III. Sometime between 1413 and 1414 it was dissolved from the shire of Lanark to become a distinct sheriffdom in its own right. Renfrewshire was born.
The title Baron of Renfrew is held by the heir to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. His other Scottish titles include Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. When Charles visits Scotland he must use the title Duke of Rothesay.
The Sempill (Semple) family supported the Stewarts and this ensured their advancement at Court and their material progress. They first came to prominence during the reign of King Alexander II (1214-1249). Robert de Sempill was a vassal of Elziotstoun in 1220 and is recorded as a witness to the donation of the church at Largs to the monks of Paisley Abbey in 1246 by Walter, 3rd High Steward of Scotland.
His son, also called Robert became Steward of the Barony of Renfrew in 1283 during the reign of Alexander III. The barony was held by James 5th High Steward of Scotland (1283-1309). He was witness in a charter of Malcolm, earl of Lennox in 1280 and one by James, 5th High Steward of Scotland in 1309.
His two sons, Robert and Thomas, supported Robert the Bruce, the elder son being rewarded for his services with “whole lands and pertinents which belonged to John Balliol, lying in the tenement of Largs, to be held by him and his heirs in free barony” dated 1320. He died sometime before 1330. The younger son, Thomas, fell at Bannockburn in 1314.
William de Sempill succeeded as Steward of Renfrew c 1320. Around this time the family acquired the barony of Elliotstoun (now known as Elliston) within the Parish of Lochwinnoch and this became the territorial designation of the chiefly line for the next 160 years. During these years the family increased their power and influence in Renfrewshire and beyond. Below is an early photograph of what remains of Elliston Castle. The remains are now in a private garden and shrouded in shrubbery with little of the remaining stonework visible.
In 1367 Williams son, Thomas de Sempill of Elliotstoun, is witness to a charter of the lands of Sanquhar being given to Paisley Abbey by Robert 7th High Steward.
On 22nd July 1375 Sir John Sempill received a Charter from King Robert II comprising the grant which the Earl of Carrick, the King’s eldest son, had made to him of lands of Glasford in Lanarkshire. He died around 1405. The daughter of Sir John Sempill, Jean, married Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute, an ancestor of the Marquis of Bute.
The next in the Sempill line, also Sir John, was one of the Commissioners appointed to negotiate the release of James I from the English in 1421. In December 1423, he was given safe passage to Durham by order of King James I “to wait on his Majesty “. In 1426 he is referred to as the Sheriff of Renfrew. He was knighted around 1430. He later sat in the parliaments which met in the early 1440’s in Edinburgh and Stirling.
Sir Robert Sempill of Elliotstoun was held in great favour by King James II. On 31st October 1451 the “lands of Southennan” were secured by Charter from the King.
In 1463, his son Sir William became Hereditary Sheriff of the County of Renfrew. In 1474 Sir William paid a composition of £66 13s. 4d to King James III for a writ to prevent his father from alienating his lands. On October 4th 1474 he paid another composition of the same amount for a charter, on his father’s resignation, of the Baronies of Elliotstoun in Renfrewshire, Glassford in Lanarkshire, Southennan in Ayrshire and Rossie in Perthshire. Sir William also held the office of Bailie to the Abbot and convent of Paisley for their lands in Renfrewshire. (In 1545 this office was made hereditary in the Semple family by a grant of John Hamilton, Abbot of Paisley, to Robert Master of Semple who succeeded his father as Lord Semple in 1553.)
Sir William married Margaret, daughter of Lord Cathcart, and was succeeded by his son, Thomas Semple, who sat in the Parliament of 24th Feb 1483-84, and several others. He moved the family seat from Elliotstoun to Castletoun. Sir Thomas, who also became Sheriff of Renfrew, fell fighting for the King at Sauchieburn June 11th 1488.
He was succeeded by his son Sir John Sempill who was created Lord Sempill sometime in 1492/93 by King James IV. He had Castletoun rebuilt and this is when the barony of Castletoun was renamed Castle Semple. He was the first bailie of the regaility of Paisley. He was appointed by Abbot George Shaw (1472-98) to the office for three years, and further during “ his gude bering”; but Abbot Robert Shaw, shortly after he succeeded his uncle in 1498, called upon Lord Semple by a summons before the Lords Auditors to give an account of his intromissions as bailie of the regaility. Lord Semple asked the Lords to confirm him in the office. The case was heard, February 14, 1509, when the Lords refused to grant the confirmation desired.
The barony of Semple was created in 1505 and included the lands of Elliotstoun, Castletoun, Shuterflat, Hartenstoum, Nether-Pennell, Barm Kilbarchan, Weitlands, Bordlands, Craiginfeoch, Southannan and the barony of Glassford.
In 1505 he founded a Collegiate Church close to the castle and dedicated it to the “honour of God, and the blessed Virgin Mary, for the prosperity of his sovereign James IV and Margaret his Queen, for the soul of Margaret Colville of Ochiltree his former spouse and also for the salvation of his own soul and that of Margaret Crichton his present wife and all of his predecessors and successors and all the faithful deceased“. It was served by a senior priest (provost), six chaplains, two altar boys and a sacristan (the church officer). The grounds around the church are thought to contains the remains of residences and offices as well as a grammar school and cemetery associated with the building.
In July 1505 the King was travelling from Dumbarton to Whithorn. On his way he visited Lord Semple at Elliotstoun to inspect the new church. He gave 14 shillings toward the cost of construction.
John 1st Lord Sempill died at Flodden in 1513. The Collegiate Church was extended to accommodate the tomb recess of its founder within the apse. Today the church is under the care of Historic Scotland and considered a remarkable example of Gothic ecclesiastical architecture. The detail in the stonework has been obscured by the ravages of time. The photograph below is a representation of the original stonework.
Click HERE for a 360 degree view of the Church
The eldest son, William, succeeded to the title and obtained a charter to the lordship with the assistance of the Regent Albany in 1515. The 2nd Lord Sempill was Lord Judiciary and heritable Baillie of the Regality of Paisley. More importantly he was a member of the Privy Council of James V in which role he favoured the marriage of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, to Edward, son of Henry VIII of England. King James bestowed on him further lands in 1523, 1529 and 1539 and from Queen Mary in 1545 and 1546. Some of these lands were grouped into the free barony of Craiginfeauch. The lands of Castletoun, Elliotstoun, Schuttirflat, Nethir-Pennel, Hairstentoun, and the lands of Levern, Bargany and Lechland, and the lands of Southennane in Ayrshire, and the lands of Glasfurd in Lanarkshire, were incorporated into the free barony of Semple. Just before his death he purchased the lands of Burnt Shields in the parish of Kilbarchan. His brother Gabriel is the ancestor of the Semples of Cathcart. His second son, David is the ancestor of the Semples of Craigbetts, a branch of whom settled in Spain and flourished there.
William died in 1548 and was succeeded, as 3rd Lord Sempill, by his son Robert who was later to be known as the “Great Lord Sempill”. Prior to becoming Lord Semple he was appointed constable and keeper of the castle of Douglas (a crown forfeiture) in 1533. In 1547 Robert had fought at the Battle of Pinkie and was taken prisoner by the English. He later became a supporter of the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, widow of James V and was devoted to the interest of Mary Queen of Scots. Indeed, in 1560, Castle Sempill came under attack because of his opposition to the Reformation. However, after the murder of Mary’s husband, Earl Darnley, Robert entered into a bond of association with other Scots peers to promote Mary’s son as King James VI. He fought against the Queen and Bothwell at the Battle of Carberry Hill and was a signatory to the warrant imprisoning Mary in Lochleven Castle. In 1568 he fought with Regent Moray at the Battle of Langside and in “consideration for this and many valuable services to king and government” was given a charter to the lands of Paisley Abbey “upon the forfeiture of these from Lord Claud Hamilton”. The Hamilton’s were later to regain these lands.
The sketch below is of the sword wielded by Lord Sempill at the Battle of Langside. The blade is 5ft 93/8 ins long and 3ins wide at the hilt. The guard and hilt are 2ft 73/4 ins long giving an overall length of 8ft 51/8 ins. It weighed 241/4 lbs in old money or 11kg in new money.
In the reign of Queen Mary, Robert Lord Semple, obtained a Commission of Justiciary over the whole barony and sheriffdom of Renfrew, but, having abused his office by cruelly oppressing Glen of Bar and his family, the Privy Council, on the complaint of Glen, suspended his commission, October 10, 1564.
Of interest, within the wider context of Lochwinnoch’s history, it was through the Great Lord Sempill’s association with Regent Moray and the advancement this patronage secured for the family, that later the first bridge across the River Calder was named the Regent Moray Bridge, now more familiarly known as Bridgend.
During his tenure the Great Lord Sempill engaged in long-running feuds (1488 – 1586) with the Houses of Eglinton and Glencairn – the Montgomery and Cunningham families respectively. It is said there were so many lives lost that it was more like a civil war than a family quarrel. These were dangerous times and around 1570 Lord Robert built a small, easily defended stronghold, the Peel Castle, on an islet in the loch. This remained a place of relative safety for the family for some 150 years until it’s “dingin’ doon” around 1735 as recorded in the Legend of Ringan Sempill. This Sempill was by reputation a “warlock” and the ruins of the Peel Castle he frequented can still be viewed today.
Though he did not succeed to his father’s title, John, the 7th son of the Great Lord Sempill by his second wife, laid claim to his place in the family history. John married Mary, daughter of Alexander the 5th Lord Livingstone, who was one of the Maids of Honour to Mary Queen of Scots and immortalised in the folk-ballad :
“There was Mary Beaton, and Mary Seaton, Mary Carmichael and me “
This relationship allowed John to become a great favourite of the Queen and the Sempills prospered well under her patronage. However, this was the time of the Reformation. The Sempills had not renounced Roman Catholicism. John was castigated as “Sempill the Dancer” by the Reformer, John Knox and in 1577 was accused of treason for conspiring to murder the Regent Morton. Denounced by one of his co-conspirators, he was sentenced to be hung, drawn, and quartered. The influence of family and well-connected friends enabled this sentence to be reduced to imprisonment and he was later released. This seventh son is the ancestor of the Semples of Beltrees. He died in 1579. His son, Sir James Sempill of Beltrees was appointed Ambassador to France by James VI and I around 1596.
The Great Lord Semple’s son, Robert, Master of Semple, predeceased his father dying in 1569. His son, another Robert, succeeded his grandfather as fourth Lord Semple when his grandfather died in 1572. He assisted at the baptism of Prince Henry in 1594 by carrying the “lavyer with water”. He subsequently attended on the Queen at the celebratory banquet for the event at Stirling Castle. He was part of the Privy Council of James VI and was sent as Ambassador to Spain in 1596. He continued the family allegiance to the Roman Catholic faith and, in 1608, was excommunicated by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. This meant that he could no longer hold public office. He died on March 25th 1611. By his first wife, Lady Anne Montgomery, second daughter of Hugh, third Earl of Eglinton, he had a son, Hugh who succeeded him, and four daughters. His son from his second wife, Dame Johanna de Evieland, was Sir James Semple of Letterkenny in Ireland, and his daughter married into the house of Southwell.
The 5th and 6th Lords, Hugh and Francis respectively, led somewhat less public lives. Hugh gave up the office of the hereditary sheriffdom of Renfrew and office of the hereditary bailie of the regaility of Paisley to Alexander Earl of Eglingtoun in 1636. Francis was born in 1622 and died in 1644 without issue and was succeeded as 7th Lord by his brother Robert. He supported the Royalist cause in the Civil War and was fined £1000 by Cromwell’s Common-Wealth under the Act of Grace and Pardon in 1654. By this time, their long royalist association had also resulted in the family estates being significantly diminished through enforced land forfeitures.
The 7th Lord (died 1675) was predeceased by his first son, Robert. His second son, Francis (born 1660) became 8th Lord Semple. This was a significant succession as Francis, the 8th Lord Sempill, was the first to become a Protestant and so became the first Sempill to take a seat in Parliament since the reign of Mary Queen of Scots. Embracement of the reformed religion came about as Francis, while a minor, had been placed under the care of the protestant Earl of Dundonald. Francis, 8th Lord Sempill, died without issue in 1684 and was succeeded by his sister, Anne, as Baroness Sempill. This succession was possible by a Deed of Entail confirmed by the Crown in 1685. Three years later Baroness Sempill secured a new charter to the title which granted succession to her daughters should there be no male issue. Anne married Francis Abercrombie of Fettermier in Aberdeenshire and after her death in 1695 was succeeded to the title by three of her sons! It would not be until 1835 that the title would next pass to the female line.
Anne’s eldest son, Francis the 9th Lord Sempill, sat in Parliament from 1703 and was strongly opposed to the Union with England. In the Craigievar Manuscripts, the 16th Baroness Sempill was later to note that “not withstanding very considerable offers if he would comply with the measures of the Court in relation to the Union, he ( Francis ) gave that treaty all opposition in his power and voted against every article”. Francis was unmarried, (born 1685, died in 1716), and was buried in the Chapel Royal at Holyrood. The title passed to his brother, John.
The 10th Lord Sempill supported the Hanoverians during the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion and trained an Ayrshire regiment for the fight against Prince Charlie. He died in 1716, also without issue, was buried at Holyrood and was succeeded by his brother, Hugh (born 1688) as the 11th Lord Sempill.
Hugh was a professional soldier whose military career had seen action in Flanders, Spain, and France. His first commission was dated July, 1709. He Served with distinction and was Major of the 26th Regiment of Foot, or Cameronians, in 1718. He was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Nineteenth Regiment of Foot in 1731.
On 14th January 1741 he succeeded Lord Crawford as the commanding officer of the 42nd Regiment of Foot or Royal Highlanders (better known as the Black Watch). The regiment was re-designated Lord Sempill’s Highlanders during his command. He accompanied them in 1743 to Flanders, where they highly distinguished themselves. He commanded in the town of Aeth, when it was besieged by the French and made a gallant defence.
He was appointed Colonel of the 25th Regiment of Foot (King’s Own Scottish Borderers) on 25th April 1745. Again, the regiment was renamed in his honour as Sempill’s Regiment of Foot and were recalled to Britain to deal with the emerging Jacobite threat.
He was Brigadier-General in command of the left-wing of the Royalist army at Culloden in 1746. Sempill assumed command of the government garrison in Aberdeen after Culloden, but was to die a few months later as a result of a botched blood-letting. He died on 25th Nov 1746 and was interred at the West Church in Drumsaisle, Aberdeenshire.
However, Hugh 12th Lord Sempill had brought his family’s association with Lochwinnoch to a close many years earlier. In 1727, 11 years after succeeding to the title in 1716, Hugh sold the estates of Castle Sempill and Elliotstoun. By then the Sempills had become less wealthy and influential; their years as powerful Barons in the county of Renfrew ended.
The family had little or no connection with Lochwinnoch thereafter. Until, in the 1990’s the present Lord Semple, a marketing professional, set up a Semple Family Association, now referred to as Clan Semple, and formed some link to the place through the Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park Authority.